In a centralized model, one Data Governance organization oversees all activities in all subject areas. In a replicated model, the same DG operating model and standards are adopted by each business unit. In a federated model, one Data Governance organization coordinates with multiple Business Units to maintain consistent definitions and standards.
The most formal and mature data management operating model is a centralized one. Here everything is owned by the Data Management Organization. Those involved in governing and managing data report directly to a data management leader who is responsible for Governance, Stewardship, Metadata Management, Data Quality Management, Master and Reference Data Management, Data Architecture, Business Analysis, etc.